The potential role of nanoscale exosomes in the diagnosis of diseases
Seyedeh farzaneh Mahdavian
,1 Shabanali khodashenas limoni
1. department of medical biotechnology,faculty of new medical technology,mazandaran university of medical science,sari,iran
2. department of medical biotechnology,faculty of new medical technology,mazandaran university of medical science,sari,iran
Exosomes are 50_150 nm vesicles. they are part of the intracellular communication network which is released to the extracellular environment. they contain many types of macromolecules such as protein, mirna, noncoding rna and mrna. most of the cells (prokaryote and eukaryote) can secrete exosomes which contain specific biomolecules. in mammalian, exosomes are found in body fluids such as blood, urine, saliva and etc.
because their contents reflect the physiological condition of parent cells and their existence in most biological fluids, exosomes have the potential to play a role as a liquid biopsy biomarker. abnormal cells also secrete exosomes whit specific cargos. in this review, we tried to present a definition about exosomes and summarize the role of them in the formation and progression of diseases. we also reviewed researches about exosome proteomics, exosome_ derived mirna and long non-coding rna profiling types of diseases including cancers( lung adenocarcinoma, pancreatic, gastrointestinal and etc), neurodegenerative, infectious and cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords of exosomes and diagnosis are searched in google scholar, pubmed and scopus and articles were reviewed from 2013 t0 2018
Survey of exosome derived mirna, lncrnas and protein demonstrated differences in types and level of contents between patient and healthy samples. these evidence has indicated that exosome could be used as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers.
It is now clear that exosomes have a major role in the physiological process in both normal and abnormal tissues. although exo-biomarkers are non- invasive and accessible, there are limitations for translation of exo-biomarkers to a clinical setting. such as lack of standardization of methods for isolation and characterizing them. in addition, the condition of sampling can influence the level of producing exosomes and subsequences analysis. so there is a requirement to standardization of methods for sample handling and characterization.