Study of the relationship between smoking and ocp pills with breast cancer risk in women with breast cancer referring to shohada hospital from 2013 to 2017
Hesam adin Atashi
,1,* Mohammad hadizadeh
1. School of Medicine, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2. Department of Surgery, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in all age groups and accounts for 28% of all cancers. it is the second leading cause of death after lung cancer, and its death rate has increased over the past two decades. one of the causes of this disease is the use of oral contraceptives (ocp). the impact of tobacco and smoke on breast cancer is still unclear, but there are some assumptions about the risk of developing this disease before menopause. therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and ocp pills with the risk of breast cancer in women with breast cancer.
This descriptive study was conducted on 1,200 women with breast cancer who referred to shohadaye tajrish hospital in tehran during the years 2013 to 2017. demographic data, recurrence, metastasis, type of tumor and age of breast cancer patients were collected through their clinical records. the incomplete information was provided by a trained employee by a questionnaire (alpha cronbach s equal of 0.84) and by telephone interview with the patient (in case of being alive) or with one of the first-degree relatives of the patient. data on the expression levels of er, pr, her-2 p53 and ki67 genes were also evaluated. then, the data were analyzed using spss 16 and chi-square and anova tests. the significance level was considered to be p≤0.05.
The mean age of the patients was 52.86 ± 14.56. 03.03% of patients smoked and 16% were non-smoker but in direct contact with cigarette smoke. the results of this study showed that smoking reduced the age of breast cancer (p <0.01). however, there was no statistically significant relationship between cigarette smoking and the type of tumor at the time of diagnosis (p> 0.05). smoking significantly increased the grade of the disease at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.03). 589 non-smoker patients had invasive ductal carcinoma and only 2 smokers with lobular carcinoma. smoking significantly increased the incidence of er, her-2 and p53 genes (p <0.05). according to the results of this study, the use of ocps increased the age of cancer (p = 0.01), with the average age of those who consumed ocp for a long time 2 years longer than those who did not take ocp pills. there was no significant relationship between ocp consumption and type of tumor (p> 0.05).
There was no statistically significant relationship between cigarette smoking and the type of tumor at the time of diagnosis. but smoking significantly increased the incidence of er, her-2 and p53 genes. although the tumor type was 85% of patients who did not consume ocp at all, there was no significant relationship between ocp and type of tumor in the case of invasive ductal carcinoma.
Smoking, breast cancer, ocp, shohada hospital