Cancer treatment with rna interference
,1,* Mona akbari
,2 Zahra sadeghzadeh
,3 Saira ebrahim abadi
,4 Fateme radnia
1. student research commitee golestan university of medical science, Gorgan, Iran
2. student research commitee golestan university of medical science, Gorgan, Iran
3. student research commitee golestan university of medical science, Gorgan, Iran
4. student research commitee golestan university of medical science, Gorgan, Iran
5. student research commitee, tabriz university of medical science
The cancer is one of the significant reasons for death in the world. up to now, many therapeutic approaches have been developed to deal with cancer, rnai mechanisms are briefly described in this review. at the moment, the cancer treatment mainly contains surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and multimodality therapy.
rnai is a post-translational mechanism that suppresses genes by altering the chromatin structure, preventing protein translation, or destroying direct mrna and is found in eukaryotic cells. rnai is a powerful gene extinguishing process that has a perspective on cancer treatment in the future. many genetic products involved in carcinogens have been identified as targets for rnai intervention, and rna target molecules that are essential for the tumor- host and tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy are also studied. in many studies, the extinction of essential gene products by the mechanism of rnai has produced significant effects of antiproliferative and/or proapoptotic in cell-culture systems or in preclinical animal models.
advantage of rnai technology is to target a large number of different genes involved in distinct cellular pathways, which is particularly important for complex diseases such as cancer. the main pathways of the cell has changed in cancer include : include the receptor protein tyrosine kinase (ptk) pathway, adenomatous polyposis coli (apc) pathway, glioma-associated oncogene (gli) pathway, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (pik3) pathway, smad pathway, hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (hif) pathway, retinoblastoma (rb) pathway, p53 pathway, and apoptosis (apop) pathway.
ptgs (post translation gene silencing) is a natural mechanism in the metazoa cells that suppresses the spread of genes when they are exposed against the dsrna molecules of the same sequence. in ptgs, the gene transcript has been synthesized without aggregation due to rapid degradation of the transcript.
the therapeutic molecule using sirna to extinguish the gene has attracted significant attention to targeting the cancer-related genes. essentially, the sirna molecules are attached to the mrna with complementary base pairs to induce the destruction of mrna or/and block the synthesis of protein. many gene and gene-related proteins have been reported to date in targeting cancer-based sirna treatment. in addition, combining sirna with traditional anticancer drugs, synergistic anticancer effects, or overcoming drug resistance, improves the ability to target and minimize side effects.
today, sirna therapies have made the cancer cells susceptible to chemotherapy by turning off genes that help with drug resistance during chemotherapy.sirna can target selectively and reduce the expression of the genes that cause the disease. since this is a hopeful way of treating cancer in the future, but effective transmission to the cytosol of the target cell is one of the problems that affects its clinical applications.
One of the promising methods for treating cancer in the future is the use of rnai mechanism which, by binding to the target, can prevent the expression and degradation of it, but one of the problems is its effective transmission to the target cell cytosol.
According to the methods described in this article, the rnai mechanism can be effective in extinguishing genes that are related to cancer, along with other methods such as chemotherapy
Due to the increasing incidence of cancer in recent years and the relatively low efficiency of chemotherapy, the use of therapeutic approaches that interact with the natural defensive mechanisms of the body can be considered as less harmful and more effective methods for the treatment of these disease. using rnai is one of the best ways to suppress the growth and cancerous cells proliferation for cancer treatment.
Cancer, rnai, mrna, ptgs, sirna