Defects in apoptotic pathways can lead to cancer. apoptosis is one of the major responses to cancer treatments. changes in the ability of apoptosis not only contribute to neoplasm enhancement but also lead to resistance to common cancer treatments such as radiation therapy or cytotoxic agents.
the mitochondria are the main site for oxidative and synthesis (atp) phosphorylation, and provides approximately 95% of cellular energy and is called the cell s energy home.
early studies have shown differences between mitochondria of normal cells and cancer cells. differences between these mitochondria can be considered as cancer markers.
the main pathway for cellular death is called the mitochondrial pathway, which is activated by a wide range of signals including radiation, cytotoxic drugs, cellular stress, and growth factor receptors and involves the release of proteins such as cytochrome c from mitochondrial membrane space.
Since mitochondria are associated with the process of apoptosis, it is one of the purposes for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
mitochondrial dysfunction causes a variety of diseases, such as cancer and multiple neurodegenerative disorders.
the mitochondrial anticancer targets are called mitokan, which by selective accumulation in the mitochondria and damage to the mitochondrial membrane, leads to increased ros and apoptosis.
there are two known methods for delivering medication to mitochondria: 1- direct binding of the target ligand to the drug, 2- attach the target ligand to the nanoparticle.
there are a number of mitochondrial target conjugates, most of which are triphenylphosphonium (tpp), which have strong connections with mitochondriananoparticles used in the treatment of mitochondrial cancer can be characterized by the use of a dequalinium (dqa) micelles (dqasomes) capable of self-accumulation in soluble aqueous humorous media..
other nanoparticles also include polymer, metal, and liposomal that play a role in delivering medication to mitochondria.
photodynamic therapy (pdt) is an attractive alternative to common cancer treatments
the pdt method consists of two non-toxic important choices. 1-photonsensor 2. light source
ps can produce cytotoxic oxygen. .
ps is a key factor in the efficiency of the pdt method..
most commonly used ps are porphyrins and their compounds. but drawbacks include low wavelength absorption, complex structure, and water insolubility can be noted.
a new type of ps called bodipys which is used as fluorophore with a wide application in chemical sensors and fluorescence probes.
among bodipys, one can mention the type of bodipy3-peg3, which is located in mitochondria, causing more ros production and mitochondrial.
ps are involved in mitochondrial apoptosis.
since mitochondria are associated with the process of apoptosis, it is one of the purposes for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
tumor progression is observed by the dynamic levels of atp and ros, and mitophagy in mitochondria. some drugs are designed to disturb the respiratory tract and permeability of the mitochondrial membrane, which increases the levels of ros and regulates the expression of the gene in mitochondria.
drugs that interfere with the respiratory tract reduce atp production and increase the levels of ros production.
the mitochondrial penetrating peptides (mpp) are unique tools for accessing the cell and delivering bioactive cargo to the mitochondria. mpps combine and deliver a variety of anti-tumor agents that clearly inhibit tumor growth in vivo and in vitro.
The ability to provide mitochondria energy connects it to the development of a tumor or metastasis and its progression. current methods for treating cancer based on mitochondrial targeting are targeting mitochondrial atp mitochondrial membrane permeability, mitochondrial ros, and mitochondrial dna mtdnathe structure and function of mitochondria promote apoptosis through cytochrome c mechanisms. cytochrome c induces caspase activity and ultimately apoptosis through binding to apf1. the mitochondria are also calcium and intracellular ros regulators which are useful for cellular physiological activity.
one of the proposed mechanisms for resistance to cytotoxic and anti-neoplastic drugs is a change in the expression of the b-cell lymphoma-2 family, or bcl2. when the anta-apoptotic members of the bl2 family increase, it can inhibit apoptosis and cell death. the targeting of the members of this anti-apoptotic family can contribute to the development of apoptosis and effective treatment of cancer and prevent drug resistance in cancer.