electromagnetic fields have entered into human life more than acceptable limits. according to the powerful absorption rate and the noticeable spread of electromagnetic fields, extremely low frequency it is necessary to non-investigated their probable effects on biological systems more than ever. the effects of severe exposure to these fields have been indicated in some old books, but the effects of the long time exposure to the protected waves have been considered recently. clinical trials in different parts of the world have shown that different physiologic processes like reproductive ability, fertility, fetus genesis process, and the balance of nervous and hormonal systems and some cardio respiratory factors can be affected inappropriately by these environmental factors and cause different anomalies directly or indirectly.
pregnant women and fetuses are both together vulnerable, because the radio frequency radiation (rf) is in interaction with cells of embryo’s development. microwave radiation can damage to placenta barrier. the membrane prevents the transfer of substances between blood, and this fact mentions that a pregnant woman should not use cell phone except in case of emergency. according to recent findings, there is an association between cell phone use by mothers during pregnancy and greater chance of miscarriage, congenital anomalies, and behavioral problems in children. spontaneous miscarriage (sm) is the most common complication of early pregnancy. pregnancy loss before the 20th week of gestation is defined as spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage. the incidence of sm by the 20th of gestational weeks is 12 to 15 percent.
risks related to sm are controversial. some reported its association with the number of pregnancies. other findings consider women at risk with more than 3 pregnancies, in contrast with those who reported the high incidence of sm in the first pregnancy (6%); however, low incidence of miscarriage has been reported among women with history of healthy pregnancy,. overall, two of etiologic factors have been found out are uterine malformations and parental balanced chromosomal rearrangements.
In this longitudinal study, 462 pregnant women with gestational age <12 wks from seven main regions of tehran city in iran with similar social and cultural status were participated. women were interviewed face-to face to collect data. reproductive information was collected using medical file recorded in those hospitals the subjects had delivery. the measuring device measured electromagnetic waves, narda safety test solutions with valid calibration date at the entrance door of their houses.
A significant likelihood of miscarriage in women who exposed to significant level of electromagnetic wave. however, this association was not confirmed by wald test.
This study may not provide strong or consistent evidence that electromagnetic field exposure is associated or cause miscarriage. this issue may be due to small sample size in this study.