Introduction to nanomaterial and green chemistry in drug delivery
Seyedehparisa Mohaghegh motlagh
,1,* Yasamin ghaffari
,2 Neda esfandiari
1. Faculty of life sciences and biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University
2. Faculty of life sciences and biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University
3. Faculty of life sciences and biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University
in recent years, the use of compounds has grown spectacularly, and has affected all aspects of human life. the 1-100 nanometer scale has seen a vast increase vastly in research activity. one of the aspects of nanotechnology is nano drug delivery for disease treatments, especially cancer. this has opened huge possibilities for drug release, size and proliferation control of tumor cells. cancer is the second most common cause of death in developed and the third in developing countries. at the moment 12% of worldwide deaths are due to cancer and this number is only expected to rise in the future. it is predicted to be 16 million people in few years, around 60% in less developed regions. changes in life style, control of infectious disease, increasing factors of environmental hazards, and population aging are some of the reasons of rising cancer rates in recent decades. green nano materials are promising to be less problematic to humankind and the environment. among them, biological particles, such as microorganisms and plants were the most promising options. in recent years drug delivery based on green chemistry derived from natural materials was greatly welcomed. thus, green chemistry which produces renewable materials is highly resource efficient and reduces waste.
A group of metal nanoparticles and magnesium have drastic applications in medicine. for example y-〖fe〗_2 o_3 nano particles and magnetic 〖fe〗_3 o_4 nano particles in drug delivery, treatment and cancer tissue photographing lead to targeted loaded drug release as well as tgn peptides and qsh-d-enantiomer. they are functionalized in nanostructures to alzheimer damage specific cohesion. genoxal-pm micelle (formulation based on mpeg-mpegpdlla) is used for lung and breast cancer treatments. cso-pei along with sirna and ha have been used as an unthreatening drug. carbon dots, due to their special compatibility and surface properties, were considered and manufactured in different ways.
Using iron, magnesium, silver and micelle nanoparticles for some cancer treatments has established affirmative results.due to some anti-bacterial properties, they are also used as wound dressing, ointment, disinfectant and as coatings on medical tools. they have improved the healing process due to their metalloprotease activities and increase in neutrophil leucocyte activity . also, their dielectric characters in biosensors have facilitated the diagnosis of disorders. adding peg (polyethylene glycole) to nanoparticles has elevated their half-life, access to target tissue and improved the treatment process overall. carbon dots are known as an efficient probe in bioanalysis research due to their low toxicity and high potentials. they are also highly capable of inhibiting tumor growth and while decreasing side effects.
Nano polymers, low-weight molecules and aforementioned biomacromolecules are among the best candidates of nano drug delivery systems synthesized using green chemistry. all of the evolutions via green processes lead to producing low-toxicity and highly biologically potent materials which are manufactured with herbal extracts and biomaterials such as lipids and proteins. green chemistry has opened the possibility of reducing environmental impact of the synthesis of drug systems and the toxicity of said systems toxicity.
Cancer, green chemistry, drug delivery, nanoparticles