Preparation and characterization of drug loaded- bacterial cellulose nanofiber sheet as transdermal drug delivery
Sana Pirmardvand chegini
,1,* Jaleh varshosaz
,2 Rokhsareh meamar
1. Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
2. Department of Pharmaceutics, Novel Drug Delivery Systems Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3. Isfahan endocrine and metabolism research center, Isfahan university of medical science, Isfahan, Iran
It is obvious that bacterial cellulose nanofiber sheet (bcs) has been very useful in wound healing. the possessions of such a system can easily be adapted to transdermal drug delivery as it prevents loss of moisture, escapes from external infection and contamination. in this study doxycycline (dox) and venlafaxin (ven) as antibiotics and antidepressants for the treatment of infection and neuropathic pain caused by diabetic foot ulcer, were loaded in bcs. for investigation of ph effect on drug loading and drug release from bcs, different ph was assessed.
Bcs was purchased from nanonovin polymer co. ven was gift from farabi pharmaceutical co. and dox was purchased from dupharma co.
drugs was loaded in nanofiber by passive drug loading technique. ven and dox separately and together were dissolved in deionized water, then nanofibers were immersed in drugs solution and were stirred for 24 hrs. in next step drugs were loaded together in ph 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 and three different ratio of two drugs and also three different ratio of drugs to carrier. loading efficacy% (le %) for both drugs were determined by sampling of residual solution and measuring the amount of free drug in the clear solution by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (uv mini 1240, shimadzu, japan) at 341nm and 228 nm for dox and 228nm for ven. ftir spectra of ven and dox powders and atr - ftir spectra of nanofiber and drug loaded nanofiber sheets were taken by ftir and for studying of release rate of ven and dox from the drug loaded – bcs, each formulation was putted in the dialysis bag(12 kda) and in pbs ( ph 7, at room temperature). the morphology and diameter of the nanofibers and drug loaded – nanofibers were assessed using fe-sem. samples were coated with gold under vacuum before imaging.
Drugs were loaded with a ratio of 1:2 total drugs to dried nanofiber and ratio of ven to dox was 1:1. nanofibers sheets were immersed in drugs solution which adjusted at ph 7 and were stirred for 24 hrs. in room temperature. nanofiber surface was washed to removing unloaded drug on nanofiber surface and then freeze dried. the results confirmed the loading of ven in bcs was successful. drugs were loaded together in ph 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 and was stable just in ph 6, 7and 8. . burst release in beginning hours for two drugs were seeing and could related to release of the drugs located near the surface of the nanofibers. in two formulation, ven have shown more burst release and around 50% of ven was released in first 20 hrs. after that release manner altered to sustain release and continued up to 130 hrs. in c1 v1 d1 ph7 case about 12% of dox was released in first 2 hrs. and on the other hand 34.5% of c1d1v2ph 8‘s dox was released slowly during 132h. release rate of ven decreased and about 60% of the drug was released until the 67th hours and this release continued slowly at the end of the 132 h about 83% of the ven was released from the formulation.
morphology and size of bcs were studied by the fe-sem and the results shown the diameter of these nanofibres is about 100 to 150 nm.
Bcs because of appropriate properties is a good candidate for drug delivery system and wound dressing.
Bacterial cellulose nanofiber sheet , bcs, doxycycline, venlafaxine, wound dressing