Recent advances in aunps based nanomaterials for photodynamic therapy
,1 Hossain ali rafiee-pour
,2,* Sedigheh falahi
1. Biotechnology Division, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, I. R. Iran
2. Biotechnology Division, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, I. R. Iran
3. Biotechnology Division, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, I. R. Iran
Photodynamic therapy (pdt) is a minimally invasive cancer treatment with high selectivity and low side effect. pdt involves the use of photochemical reactions mediated through the interaction of photosensitizing agents, light and molecules like reactive oxygen species (ros) and reactive nitrogen species (rns) which causes selective damage to the target tissue. these molecules play an important role in killing cells through the apoptosis pathway. for their effective delivery to tumor cells, different nanostructures are employed such as gold nanoparticles (aunps), carbon-based nanomaterials, polymeric nanoparticles and etc. among these nanostructures, aunps have gained an increasing attention due to their intrinsic properties such as shape, size, electronic, optical, physicochemical, non-toxic and non-immunogenic nature and the high permeability and retention effect which results in easy penetration and accumulation of drugs.
This review summarizes the design and fabrication strategies of nanocomposites based on aunps which finally deliver rns or produce ros, leading to the apoptosis and necrosis of tumor tissue. also cytotoxicity potential of these nanomaterials for cancer therapy is compared.
Pdt has many advantages over current cancer treatment methods, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. as a result of development in nanotechnology engineered nanoparticles efficiently, metallic nanoparticles have been widely exploited for biomedical application and among them, aunps are highly remarkable. the aunp’s biocompatibility and low toxicity are of prime significance for unhindered therapeutic applications. high surface to volume ratio ensures the immobilization of plenty of different molecules on aunps which could be carried (especially, if they contain thiol or amino groups) to the targeted tissue. binding of an antitumor agent onto the aunps can prevent their deterioration route to the tumor and at the same time to reduce the toxicity for healthy cells.
Development of gold based nanocomposites became an important strategy in pdt and could be translated into clinical strategies for cancer therapy.
Photodynamic therapy; reactive oxygen species (ros); no releasing; gold nanocomposites; tumor cell.