Insight to crimean congo haemorrhagic fever virus

Saman Hakimian,1 Hossein vazeh,2 Shaghayegh yazdani,3,*

1. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2. Department of Virology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences
3. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



The cchf(crimean congo haemorrhagic fever) virus was first identified in the crimean autonomous republic of crimea in 1944, a type of illness that was known as a bleeding fever due to a blood febrile victim. twelve years later, the same virus was found in africa and in the country of congo, which was why the name of the disease was placed on the congo fever.criemean congo haemorrhagic fever is found in eastern europe, particulary in the former soviet union, throughout the mediterranean, in northwestern china, central asia, southern europe, africa, the middle east, and the indian subcontinent. it has now been several years since the start of the heat season, from late spring until end of the summer as the mites grow and mature, congo fever disease has also been seen in iran, and some have been sacrificed . the cchf virus is a member of the genus nairovirus in the family bunyaviridae with the ambisense genome and characterized by a tripartite helix symmetry rna genome and enveloped .


The shepherds and those operating in slaughterhouses and meat processing centers are in the first group of people who are exposed to cchf virus. one of the most important ways of transmitting this virus is the infected tick bite, and of course any contact with contaminated blood such as cattle, sheep, goats and even dogs can cause transmission of the disease. slaughter, slicing, cleaning the meat and separating the skin from meat can also lead to the transmission of the disease, and rodents, such as mice, rabbits, and even rats, can cause the disease. any contact with blood, skin and body fluids , a patient with congo fever and even breathing air in the oven room leads to the disease.


It is not easy to diagnose the disease at an early stage that is similar to some diseases, including influenza and cold, but if the disease is detected in such a situation, treatment is easy, after the first stage and entering the second stage of the disease, symptoms it is much more intense and more obvious, including coagulation of blood clots under the skin, and sometimes helping some patients who are in the acute phase of the disease is useless. laboratory tests that are used to diagnose cchf include antigen-capture elisa, rt-pcr, virus isolation attempts, and detection of antibody by elisa igg and igm. laboratory diagnosis of a patient with a clinical history compatible with cchf can be made during the acute phase of the disease by using the combination of detection of the viral antigen elisa antigen capture, viral rna sequence rt-pcr in the blood or in tissues collected from a fatal case and virus isolation. immunohistochemical staining can also show evidence of viral antigen in formalin-fixed tissues. later in the course of the disease, in people surviving, antibodies can be found in the blood. but antigen, viral rna and virus are no more present and detectable.


An inactivated, mouse-brain derived vaccine against cchf has been developed and is used on a small scale in eastern europe. however, there is no safe and effective vaccine currently available for human use. further research is needed to develop these potential vaccines as well as determine the efficacy of different treatment options including ribavirin and other antiviral drugs.


Cchf, haemorrhagic fever, tick