Study of whole genomes is genomic. the genes contain instructions for protein synthesis that are the functional part of the cells and body. in genomics, the relationships between genes and their communication are evaluated. in addition to these intergenomic effects, sometimes without any changes in dna sequence, were happen inheritable changes in phenotypes that named epigenetics.
Papers show that researchers could be understand association genomic and epigenomic with phenotype with genomic and epigenomic study (by pcr, mspcr and aflp) and relationship with disorder.
The genomics is discussed and evaluated in several contexts and area. we discussed about epistasis and pleiotropic that associated with phenotype incidence. epistasis mean two or more gene have one function or effect. in contrast, pleiotropic means one gene has two or more function and phenotypic traits. in contrast, epigenetics are "on top of" the genetic sequences. one of the examples of epigenetics is methylation that shows in genomic imprinting. in genomic imprinting, phenotypic incidence was "parent of origin dependent". in this phenomenon father and mother contribute different role for specific genomic loci in offspring. some disorders in human have genomic imprinting pattern such as angelman and prader willi syndrome.
This content indicate that one phenotype is not linked to only single gene but also related to one or more gene and epigenetic effect that is located in the top of the genome.