The effect of engineered scaffolds on reconstruction of male reproductive system: a systematic review
Hamid Zaferani arani
1. 1. School of Medicine, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may soon offer new hope for patients with serious injuries and end-stage reproductive organ failure. scientists are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured reproductive tissues. in addition, the stem cell field is advancing. in many cell-based tissue engineering methods, cells are obtained from a tissue, expanded in vitro, and then seeded onto a scaffold composed of an appropriate biomaterial. the present study aimed to determine the effect of engineered scaffolds on the reconstruction of the male reproductive system.
A pubmed database search was conducted between 2010 up to 2016 for articles addressing the effect of engineered scaffolds on the reconstruction of the male reproductive system using combinations of the following keywords: scaffold, tissue engineering, and male reproductive system.
Biomaterials provide a three-dimensional scaffold for the cells adherence and from new tissues with appropriate structure and function. they also allow for the delivery of cells and appropriate bioactive factors to desired sites in the body. bioactive factors, such as cell-adhesion peptides and growth factors, can be loaded along with cells to help regulate cellular function. the ideal biomaterial should be biodegradable and bioresorbable to support the replacement of normal tissue without inducing inflammation. the biomaterial should also provide an environment in which appropriate regulation of cell behavior (adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation) can occur such that functional tissue can form. three broad classes of biomaterials have been utilized in tissue engineering studies: naturally derived materials (e.g., collagen and alginate), acellular tissue matrices (e.g., bladder submucosa and small intestinal submucosa), and synthetic polymers such as polyglycolic acid (pga), polylactic acid (pla), and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (plga). these polymers have gained fda approval for human use in a variety of applications, including sutures. because these polymers are thermoplastics, they can be easily formed into a three-dimensional scaffold with the desired microstructure, gross shape, and dimension by various techniques including molding, extrusion, solvent casting, phase separation techniques, and gas foaming techniques.
Regenerative medicine technologies for virtually every type of tissue and organ are developed. various tissues are at different stages of development. some are already being used clinically, such as engineered urethral tissue, while a few others are in preclinical trials and many more are in the discovery stage. recent progress suggests that engineered tissues may have an expanded clinical applicability in the future and may represent a viable therapeutic option for those who would benefit from benefits of reproductive tissue replacement or repair.
Scaffold, tissue engineering, male reproductive system