The role of diet in gestational diabetes mellitus and child outcomes: a systematic review

Somaye Pouy,1,* Latif panahi,2

1. Student Research Committee, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
2. Student Research Committee, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.



Diet is the fundamental treatment of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (gdm), however, there are few studies regarding the appropriate diet for maintain euglycemia and improved perinatal consequences. this systematic review aims to survey the efficacy of dietary interventions with improved glycaemia and improved birth weight outcomes in women with gdm.


A comprehensive search was done from published studies with key words of dietary regiments, maternal glycaemia and birth weight that were gathered from 8 databases. data were extracted in duplicate using prespecified forms.


3,125 studies screened and 20 involving 2131 woman and 820 neonates were included. the study results show that a healthy dietary interventions in intervention group had a larger decrease in fasting and postprandial glucose in comparison to control group (−5.06 mg/dl]; p = 0.01 and −8.66 mg/dl; p = 0.0009, respectively). also, the study results indicate that modified dietary interventions significantly reduced the risk for macrosomia and lower infant birth weight (rr 0.44 [95% ci 0.67, 0.78]; p = 0.09), large for gestational age births (rr, 0.45; 95% ci, 0.35–0.56), shoulder dystocia (rr, 0.44; 95% ci, 0.33–0.88) and gestational hypertension (rr, 0.56; 95% ci, 0.55–0.72).


A low glycemic index diet decreases risk for many important adverse pregnancy outcomes and its association with any neonatal complications. low glycemic index interventions favorably influenced outcomes related to maternal glycemia and birth weight.


Dietary regiments, maternal glycaemia, birth weight.