Diet and lifestyle habit imoact on bone density in postmenopausal women

Nafiseh Goodarzizadeh,1,* Azin yousefi,2

1. Department of health sciences, Unit of Nutrition, Jondishapour University, Ahvaz, Iran
2. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of nutrition, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran



Menopause is the stage of a woman's life, typically between the ages of 45 and 55, when she stops having menstrual periods. the transition from a reproductive stage to menopause occurs naturally over a period of years, but it can also be brought on suddenly by any medical procedure that damages or removes the ovaries.osteoporosis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality and affects 25 million americans, predominantly postmenopausal women.13 the national osteoporosis foundation estimates direct and indirect costs associated with this disorder to be $18 billion, with $7 billion related to hip fractures alone.10,14 white women aged 50 years have a 40% chance of sustaining an osteoporosis-related fracture during the remainder of their lifetimes.15,16 hip fracture is of particular concern because of the 20% chance of excess mortality within 1 year of the event.7 osteoporosis is an extremely important problem in primary care where most postmenopausal women are seen for physician visits. among the 20 million women nationally with osteoporosis, only 4 million have been diagnosed with this disorder. about 1.3 million osteoporotic fractures occur each year in the united states.14 the present study has been taken up to assess the effect of these risk factors and lifestyle on bmd of the study group and consequent awareness plane for the target population to prevent osteoporosis.


A total of 200 women between 45 to 65 years old suspected to osteoporosis were recruited for this study. a cross-sectional hospital-based study has been performed to investigate 200 osteoporosis suspected women. data collected for this study included filling questionnaires through personal interviews, use of case records, files and documents. multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the association between osteoporosis and its risk factors and obtaining the odds- ratio of each of the risk factors. all statistical analyses were performed using statistical software spss version 13.0 (spss inc, chicago).


The study showed that out of total 200 women who underwent the bmd (bone mineral density) assessment, 14.5% had osteoporosis and 37% had osteopenia. the bone mineral density decreased with advancing age and duration of menopause and 48.5% had normal bmd. seventy-five percent of the women had two or more risk factors. risk factors were postmenopausal (aor = 2.55), hysterectomy (aor = 2.18), low calcium intake (aor = 1.95), cigarette smoking (aor = 1.29) and family history of osteoporosis (aor = 1.48). by logistic regression, antiresorptive therapy found to be a positives predictor and negative predictors were exercise (aor = 0.38), calcium supplemental (aor = 0.61) and hormone replacement therapy (aor = 0.47).


Findings showed a high prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among women with advancing age, during menopause and post menopause indicating an increased risk of fractures in older women.


Postmenopausal lifestyle habits bone density osteoporosis body mass index