The purposes of writing this article are the significant role of genetics in the onset of diabetes, hoping to be treated through gene therapy and preventing the onset of disease in the next generations. diabetes is also associated with environmental factors. common complications of diabetes are retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. retinopathy has a stronger relation with environmental factors and poorer relation with genetics factors than the other two.
Current study is a review paper in which investigates the effects of change in structural genes like tnf-α, ifn-γ, tgf-β1, igf-i and vegf in british-caucasian population and cd4 in iranian population to determine the potential for accessing diabetes, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. the tgf-β1, ifn-γ, tnf-α, igf-i and vegf genes have been investigated by arms-pcr and cd4 gene have been investigated by pcr method.
Through polymorphisms -7 c/t, -1001 g/c, -1154 g/a, -2578 c/a of vegf, sensible differences were observed in -7 c/t in british-caucasian population. there was no significant differences in polymorphisms 308 g/a of tnf-α, -383 c/t and -1089 c/t of igf-i, +874 t/a of ifn-γ, +869 t/c and +975 g/c of tgf-β1 in british-caucasian population. the supporting role of a3 allele and competency role of a5 allele of cd4 against t1dm has been proven in iranian population.
Empirical evidence have confirmed different roles of those genes in diabetes. but the role of some of them was statistically rejected. one of the reasons of dismatches in statistical and experimental results is the continuity between considered polymorphisms and effective polymorphisms in diabetes.