The review of the implications in toxicity metabolomics of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol

Maryam Hajian,1,* Mohammadreza zarrindast,2 Nasehi mohammad,3

1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Northern Branch, Tehran, Iran.
2. Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Medical Genomics Re
3. Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center (CNRC), Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Ira



The plant cannabis sativa has been used for the effects of its psychoactive resins that name is (cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (thc)) .this review paper focuses on the history of pharmacokinetics of thc .therfore biotransformation of cannabinoids is an important for toxicology and xenobiochemistry .


We present a comprehensive review covering in vivo and in vitro animal and human pharmacokinetics for identifying sc( synthetic cannabinoids)and their metabolites in biological matrices.


The results of this review study shown that the metabolomics of d9 -thc, namely by presenting all known metabolites of d9 -thc described both in vitro and in vivo, and their roles in the d9 -thc-mediated toxic effects. since medicinal use is increasing, metabolomics of d9 -thc will also be discussed in order to uncover potential active metabolites that can be made available for this purpose.


it seems that use of this drug at least doubles the risk of causing an accident, and that simultaneous alcohol consumption multiplies this risk. metabolism can lead to the discovery of new compounds, unknown metabolites with unique structures and new therapeutic effects. the pharmacokinetics of d9 -thc is dependent on multiple factors such as physical/chemical form, route of administration, genetics, and concurrent consumption of alcohol.